NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 PICO (T) Questions And Evidence-Based Approach

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 | PICO (T) Questions and Evidence


Capella University

nurs-fpx 4030 assessment 3

Professor’s Name

November 2023

PICO (T) Questions and Evidence-Based Approach

In the area of evidence-based practice, formulating clear and focused research questions is essential, and one effective method for achieving this precision is through the use of PICOT questions. PICOT, an acronym for Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time, provides a structured framework for developing research queries in healthcare and related disciplines. By systematically defining each component, researchers can construct questions that guide the search for relevant and reliable evidence. This method ensures clarity and specificity, allowing for a targeted investigation into the effectiveness of interventions or treatment and diagnosis of hypertension (David Brown, 2019). Embracing a PICOT approach facilitates the identification of key variables and parameters, streamlining the research process and enhancing the overall quality of evidence-based decision-making. As scholars engage in the systematic exploration of questions, they contribute to the foundation of a knowledge base grounded in rigorous inquiry and critical evaluation, fostering advancements in healthcare and related fields.

The PICOT framework holds paramount significance for nurses as it provides a structured and systematic approach to formulating research questions, guiding their evidence-based practice. In the dynamic healthcare landscape, clarity and precision are vital, and PICOT ensures that nurses can articulate focused inquiries by defining Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time parameters. This method enables nurses to address specific clinical issues, evaluate interventions, and make informed decisions based on the best available evidence. By employing PICOT, nurses enhance their ability to critically assess and apply research findings, ultimately contributing to improved patient care outcomes. The framework serves as a valuable tool for nurses, aligning their practice with evidence-based principles and promoting a culture of continuous learning and refinement in the delivery of healthcare services.

NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3: Use of the PICO (T) Approach for Analyzing Possible Treatments of Hypertension Patients

The utilization of the PICO(T) approach proves indispensable in analyzing potential treatments for hypertension patients. Firstly, by clearly defining the Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome, this method allows for a focused investigation into specific aspects of hypertension management (Rahmah et al., 2023). For instance, a PICO(T) question could guide research on the effectiveness of a particular antihypertensive drug (Intervention) compared to another or a placebo (Comparison) in a specific population group. This structured approach ensures that researchers can tailor their inquiries to the unique characteristics of hypertension patients, facilitating targeted exploration and more informed decision-making.

Secondly, incorporating Time as a component in the PICO(T) framework adds temporal context to the analysis of treatments for hypertension. This consideration is crucial given the chronic nature of hypertension, where the efficacy of interventions may vary over time. Researchers can use the PICO(T) approach to investigate both short-term and long-term outcomes, providing a comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness and sustainability of different treatment options for hypertension patients (Suadoni & Atherton, 2021). In essence, the PICO(T) approach acts as a strategic roadmap, enhancing the clarity and relevance of research inquiries, thereby contributing to evidence-based practices in the management of hypertension.

A pertinent PICOT question for hypertension patients could be: “In adult patients diagnosed with essential hypertension (P), does the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) (I) compared to diuretics (D) (or other antihypertensive medications) (C), result in better control of blood pressure and reduced cardiovascular events (O) over a 12-month period (T)?”

This PICOT question succinctly addresses the key components. The Population (P) is specified as adult patients with essential hypertension, the Intervention (I) is the use of ACE inhibitors, the Comparison (C) involves contrasting ACE inhibitors with diuretics or other antihypertensive medications, the Outcome (O) focuses on blood pressure control and reduced cardiovascular events, and the Time (T) parameter is set at a 12-month duration. This question provides a clear and concise framework for investigating the comparative effectiveness of ACE inhibitors in managing hypertension over a defined period, facilitating a targeted and relevant research inquiry without ambiguity.

Benefits From a PICO (T) Approach in the realm of clinical decision-making and research

Benefits From a PICO (T) Approach

The PICO(T) approach offers distinct benefits in the study of hypertension patients. Firstly, this structured framework enhances clarity and precision in formulating research questions, ensuring that each component is clearly defined (Kloda et al., 2020). For instance, by specifying the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time parameters in a PICO(T) question, researchers can tailor their inquiries to the unique characteristics of hypertension patients, thereby promoting focused investigation and targeted outcomes. This clarity aids not only in the design of the study but also in the subsequent interpretation of results, fostering a more nuanced understanding of the efficacy and implications of different interventions.

Secondly, the temporal aspect introduced by the Time parameter in the PICO(T) framework is particularly advantageous in the context of hypertension, a chronic condition. By incorporating a specific time frame, researchers can assess both short-term and long-term outcomes of interventions, offering a comprehensive perspective on the effectiveness and sustainability of various treatments. This temporal dimension is crucial for healthcare practitioners seeking evidence-based insights into the dynamic nature of hypertension management (Kloda et al., 2020). In essence, the PICO(T) approach acts as a strategic guide, promoting methodological rigour and relevance in research inquiries related to hypertension patients and contributing to the advancement of evidence-based practices in healthcare.

Sources of Evidence

The article by Timpel et al. (2020) conducts an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to comprehensively assess the effectiveness of telemedicine interventions in managing diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The study synthesizes evidence from a range of sources to provide a consolidated overview of the current state of knowledge in this field. The findings suggest that telemedicine interventions show promise in effectively addressing these chronic conditions (Timpel et al., 2020). The authors highlight the potential of remote healthcare technologies in enhancing the management of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. This umbrella review serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking a synthesized understanding of the impact of telemedicine on these prevalent health concerns.

The study by Hripcsak et al. (2020) investigates and compares cardiovascular and safety outcomes associated with the use of chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension treatment. Published in JAMA Internal Medicine, the research is significant as it delves into the comparative effectiveness and safety of two commonly prescribed diuretics. The study employs robust methodologies to analyze real-world data, providing insights into the potential differences in cardiovascular outcomes and safety profiles between these medications. The findings contribute valuable evidence to inform healthcare practitioners and policymakers in optimizing hypertension management strategies (Hripcsak et al., 2020). This JAMA Internal Medicine publication stands as a pertinent resource for those involved in clinical decision-making and underscores the importance of evidence-based approaches in the selection of antihypertensive medications.

Blood pressure monitoring methods encompass various approaches for assessing cardiovascular health. Traditional manual measurement involves using a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope, where a cuff is inflated around the upper arm, and pressure is released while listening for Korotkoff sounds. Automated or electronic monitors automate this process, detecting sounds or using oscillometry for measurement. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) offers 24-hour continuous monitoring, providing a comprehensive view of blood pressure patterns (Kario, 2020). Home blood pressure monitoring with automatic devices allows patients to track readings regularly. Central blood pressure measurement assesses aortic pressure, while invasive monitoring, reserved for critical care, involves placing a catheter in an artery for continuous measurement. The choice of method depends on clinical context and patient needs, ensuring accurate and reliable blood pressure assessment for effective hypertension management.

Criteria or Rationale

The CRAAP test helps make sure our sources are good for research. It checks if sources are current, relevant, accurate, from a trustworthy source or authority, and have a clear purpose. All my sources are about hypertension detection and management from the last 5 years, so they’re recent and useful. They also focus on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM), which is important for patient well-being. The sources are from reliable places like ADA and WHO, so they’re trustworthy and give accurate information on how to spot and manage blood pressure early to avoid problems.

Findings from Articles

Misdiagnosis of hypertension poses a significant challenge in healthcare, leading to potential complications and inadequate management (Yu et al., 2020). To overcome this issue, healthcare systems can implement several strategies. Firstly, comprehensive and accurate blood pressure measurement protocols must be standardized and consistently followed, emphasizing proper technique and equipment calibration. Additionally, enhancing healthcare provider education on the latest hypertension guidelines and diagnostic criteria is crucial to ensure accurate interpretation of blood pressure readings (Nsutebu et al., 2020). Implementing advanced technologies, such as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, can provide a more comprehensive understanding of patients’ blood pressure patterns, aiding in accurate diagnosis.

Moreover, fostering patient awareness and engagement is vital. Encouraging regular blood pressure monitoring at home and promoting patient education on the importance of lifestyle modifications can empower individuals to actively participate in their hypertension management (John et al., 2021). Healthcare systems should also prioritize interdisciplinary collaboration, involving primary care physicians, specialists, and allied healthcare professionals to ensure a holistic approach to diagnosis and management (Saunders et al., 2022). Lastly, leveraging electronic health records and data analytics can facilitate proactive monitoring of blood pressure trends, enabling timely intervention and preventing misdiagnosis-related complications. By integrating these strategies, healthcare providers can enhance the accuracy of hypertension diagnosis and contribute to improved patient outcomes.

Most Credible Source

John et al., 2021 is the best source because it’s a top-notch peer-reviewed article found on the well-respected World Health Organization website. This source is reliable and gives important information about managing and controlling hypertension, making it valuable for my research.

Relevance of these Findings

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) significantly aids in addressing the PICOT question related to the detection of hypertension. For the Population (P) of individuals being assessed for hypertension, ABPM offers a continuous 24-hour monitoring system that captures fluctuations in blood pressure, providing a more accurate representation of their typical readings (Esparrago-Kalidas, 2021). The Intervention (I) of using ABPM ensures a dynamic and comprehensive assessment, allowing healthcare professionals to identify white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, factors that may affect the reliability of clinic-based measurements. By comparing ABPM results with traditional methods, the Comparison (C) component is addressed, highlighting the enhanced diagnostic precision of ABPM.

In terms of Outcomes (O), ABPM contributes to improved hypertension detection by providing a more thorough understanding of blood pressure patterns, enabling early identification of abnormalities and facilitating timely intervention. The Time (T) parameter is met as ABPM allows for continuous monitoring, giving a holistic view of blood pressure variations throughout the day and night. In summary, ABPM aligns with the PICOT framework by offering a valuable approach for accurate hypertension detection in the specified population, enhancing the overall effectiveness of evidence-based healthcare practices.

Relevant Findings Lead to Positive Outcomes

Relevant findings in research often lead to positive outcomes by providing valuable insights and actionable information. For instance, in healthcare studies, relevant findings can highlight effective interventions, improve diagnostic accuracy, or identify factors contributing to positive patient outcomes. These findings guide evidence-based practices, leading to enhanced treatment strategies, better patient care, and overall improvements in health outcomes. The relevance of findings is crucial; they should directly address the research question or hypothesis, contributing meaningfully to the existing knowledge in the field. The application of these relevant findings in clinical or practical settings can ultimately lead to positive changes, advancements, and improvements in the targeted area of study.


In conclusion, the research assignment explores the significance of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) in the detection of hypertension, aligning with a well-structured PICOT question. The reviewed articles contribute credible information from authoritative sources such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The use of the CRAAP test ensures the reliability and relevance of selected sources. Findings emphasize the importance of ABPM in providing continuous, 24-hour monitoring for accurate hypertension detection, presenting a clear advantage over traditional methods. Relevant research outcomes positively impact evidence-based healthcare practices, leading to enhanced diagnostic precision and improved patient outcomes. The synthesis of these elements underscores the critical role of ABPM in advancing our understanding and management of hypertension.


David Brown. (2019). A Review of the PubMed PICO Tool: Using Evidence-Based Practice in Health Education. SAGE Journals. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1524839919893361?journalCode=hppa

Esparrago-Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The effectiveness of CRAAP test in evaluating credibility of sources. International Journal of TESOL & Education, 1(2), 1–14. https://i-jte.org/index.php/journal/article/view/25

Hripcsak, G., Suchard, M. A., Shea, S., Chen, R., You, S. C., Pratt, N., Madigan, D., Krumholz, H. M., Ryan, P. B., & Schuemie, M. J. (2020). Comparison of cardiovascular and safety outcomes of chlorthalidone vs hydrochlorothiazide to treat hypertension. JAMA Internal Medicine, 180(4), 542. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.7454

John, O., Campbell, N. R. C., Brady, T. M., Farrell, M., Varghese, C., Velazquez Berumen, A., Velez Ruiz Gaitan, L. A., Toffelmire, N., Ameel, M., Mideksa, M., Jaffe, M. G., Schutte, A. E., Khan, T., & Lopez Meneses, L. P. (2021). The 2020 “WHO technical specifications for automated non-invasive blood pressure measuring devices with cuff.” Hypertension, 77(3), 806–812. https://doi.org/10.1161/hypertensionaha.120.16625

Kario, K. (2020). Management of hypertension in the digital era. Hypertension, 76(3), 640–650. https://doi.org/10.1161/hypertensionaha.120.14742

Kloda, L. A., Boruff, J. T., & Soares Cavalcante, A. (2020). A comparison of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) to a new, alternative clinical question framework for search skills, search results, and self-efficacy: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 108(2). https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2020.739

Nsutebu, N. S., Owusu, I. K., Buabeng, K. O., & Bonsu, K. O. (2020). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and management of hypertension at a cardiac clinic in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 22(4), 605–613. https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.13822

Rahmah, A. S. N., Tamtomo, D., & Murti, B. (2023). Meta Analysis the effect of electronic health-based self management in controlling blood pressure in hipertensive patients. Journal of Health Policy and Management, 8(2), 105–118. https://www.thejhpm.com/index.php/thejhpm/article/view/323

Saunders, H., Helgeson, S. A., Abdelrahim, A., Rottman-Pietrzak, K., Reams, V., Zeiger, T. K., Moss, J. E., & Burger, C. D. (2022). Comparing diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension patients at a pulmonary hypertension center versus community centers. Diseases, 10(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10010005

Suadoni, M. T., & Atherton, I. (2021). Berberine for the treatment of hypertension: A systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 42, 101287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2020.101287

Timpel, P., Oswald, S., Schwarz, P. E. H., & Harst, L. (2020). Mapping the evidence on the effectiveness of telemedicine interventions in diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(3), e16791. https://doi.org/10.2196/16791

Yu, D., Li, X., Gong, J., Li, J., Xie, F., & Hu, J. (2020). Left-sided portal hypertension caused by peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer: a case report and literature review. BMC Gastroenterology, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01420-x


Providing presurgical in-home visits or telephone calls to patients awaiting Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery can offer several benefits in reducing apprehension and anxiety. Such personalized interactions with a nurse specialized in coronary care can provide patients with emotional support, guidance, and reassurance during the stressful waiting period. These connections can facilitate open communication, address concerns promptly, and offer a sense of comfort and understanding to patients as they prepare for their surgery. Additionally, offering caring conversations and tailored support according to the individual needs of the patients can play a significant role in alleviating their anxiety and promoting a sense of overall well-being leading up to the procedure. This personalized approach can contribute positively to the patients’ mental and emotional health, which in turn may have a beneficial impact on their physical health outcomes post-surgery.

Peplau’s Therapeutic Communication Model is instrumental in addressing and reducing anxiety and depression in patients both before and after CABG surgery. The study conducted by Zarea et al. (2018) sheds light on this aspect by specifically examining how the model can be applied to alleviate the anxiety levels experienced by patients leading up to their coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure. By utilizing evidence-based practices and tools such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the study demonstrated the significant impact of incorporating a coronary specialist in patients’ care. It was noted that patients who had direct engagement with a coronary specialist experienced a substantial reduction in anxiety and depression not only in the preoperative phase but also during their postoperative period and hospitalization. This indicates that the implementation of Peplau’s Therapeutic Communication Model plays a pivotal role in enhancing patient outcomes by effectively addressing and mitigating anxiety and depression throughout the entire CABG process.

The COMFORT Model, which has been introduced in the document, offers a robust framework supported by evidence-based research to address the issue of patient anxiety reduction effectively. This model, outlined by Goldsmith et al. (2020), focuses on providing a comprehensive approach to alleviate anxiety and apprehension among patients. By utilizing seven different strategies, the COMFORT Model assists healthcare workers in delivering reassurance not only to patients but also to their families and other involved caregivers.

The article, published in the Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, serves as a guideline for healthcare professionals looking to provide patient-centered care with a scientific and scholarly approach. With a foundation built on credibility, the COMFORT Model equips healthcare workers with a reliable framework that can be instrumental in responding to clinical inquiries effectively, especially those posed within the PICO(T) format. Through its structured techniques and comprehensive guidance, the COMFORT Model is positioned as a valuable tool in addressing patient anxiety and apprehension, ultimately contributing to improved patient outcomes and well-being.

Presurgical in-home visits or telephone calls can be highly beneficial for CABG patients in terms of alleviating apprehension and anxiety. By exploring these options, healthcare workers can provide caring conversations that help alleviate the emotional burdens these patients may face. This focused attention on the patients’ concerns can significantly contribute to their overall heart health and well-being. By adopting a patient-centered approach that considers the individual needs and anxieties of CABG patients, healthcare professionals can build a solid foundation for promoting their welfare and ensuring a smoother surgical experience.

The study examines the impact of stress and anxiety on patients awaiting Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. It aims to determine whether implementing a program involving presurgical in-home visits and follow-up telephone calls from a specialized coronary nurse can effectively reduce apprehension and anxiety levels experienced by patients on CABG wait lists.

When offering presurgical in-home visits or telephone calls to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients, there are various benefits in terms of reducing apprehension and anxiety. By providing personalized care and engaging in caring conversations with patients, healthcare providers can help alleviate the apprehension and anxiety that CABG patients may experience. This approach can greatly benefit the overall heart health of patients undergoing CABG surgery. Focusing on patient-centered care and attending to the emotional wellbeing of patients can be pivotal in reducing their stress levels and comforting them throughout the surgical process. Therefore, utilizing these practices can establish a strong foundation for the overall welfare and comfort of CABG patients.

The practice issue being explored pertains to the stress and anxiety levels of patients awaiting Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. The focus is on determining whether implementing interventions such as presurgical in-home visits and follow-up telephone calls from specialized nurses can help reduce patient apprehension and anxiety during the waiting period for CABG surgery. By investigating the effectiveness of these interventions, the study aims to address the emotional challenges faced by patients on CABG waitlists and ascertain whether proactive support like in-home visits and regular telephone communication can alleviate their stress and anxiety. This research emphasizes patient-centered care and the importance of considering interventions that prioritize the overall wellbeing and heart health of CABG patients.

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